What you want to know

These are a brief selection of questions we are asked and our responses.

NICOLEE is the result of over 30 years of selective breeding. A considerable amount of time and research has gone into refining my German Shepherd pedigree.

Suitability of the mating is paramount to insure we produce a top quality outstanding litter of healthy confident puppies in which to further the breed.

Our puppies are whelped in a highly safe and clean enviroment and will be reared to a very high standard of care. They will be reared in our family home where they will grow and spend the first few vitally important weeks surrounded by all the hustle and bustle of everyday family life. They will become accustomed to everyday noises, vacuuming, electrical machines and handled on a daily basis by my children and other adults.
They will be well socialised with adult’s, children, our other dog’s and will go out in our garden ( weather permitting ) and will be supervised at all times. We will do our absolute best to insure that your puppy is confident, happy, and forward going. In an effort to make the transition from here to your home and family life as stress free as possible.

Prior to leaving, your puppy will be Kennel Club registered, undertaken a programme of worming, be microchipped, offered first vaccination, have a 5 generation pedigree, four week’s Kennel Club Insurance, starter food pack and a comfort blanket. All puppies will be fully vet checked and have an after sales contract providing you and your puppy with lifelong advice and support.

*PLEASE NOTE* in your puppy contract it will state that if for any reason at all you need to rehome your Nicolee puppy or dog, no matter what age he or she is, you must return him/her back here to us.

Your puppy will also have their kennel club paperwork endorsed:- “x” Puppy is restricted from being exported “R” Puppy is restricted from having it’s progeny registered by the kennel club.

WE DO NOT, FOR ANY REASON, LIFT BREEDING RESTRICTIONS ON ANY OF OUR PUPPIES. SO PLEASE DO NOT ASK AS WE DO NOT WANT TO OFFEND. THIS IS TO SAFE GUARD THE WELFARE AND FUTURE SAFETY OF ALL OUR PUPPIES FROM GETTING INTO THE WRONG HANDS.

When the time comes for your puppy to arrive into your family home it will become your responsibilty to provide him or her with a very happy and healthy fullfilling future. We advise you to socialise and educate your puppy as much as possible and to join a training class.

We hope you will have your new best friend for many many year’s to come and we will always welcome you back into our home and look forward to recieving pictures and achievements that we can add to our website.

All Nicolee German Shepherd puppies are raised on Royal Canin or Purina Pro Plan with raw mince mixed in. We also include raw chicken wings on a daily basis. All puppies will leave here with a small bag to get you through approx a week or graduate the change onto your preferred food stuff.

If you are wanting to change your puppies diet please do this gradually over a a period of 1 week starting at day one with a couple of pieces of the new food in his regular meal.

When a puppy is approximately 8 weeks old they should have their first inoculation for Distemper, Hepatitis, Parvo and Parainfluenza complex. When the puppy is approximately 12 weeks old the second inoculation is given. The puppy is not allowed out in the public until the inoculations are completed. After the second inoculation is given these then become annually. All puppies are wormed with Panacur Paste at 2,4,6 and 8 weeks of age. I worm my dogs every 3/4 months. Your vet will advise you on different types of dog wormer. Flea treatment can be given from 12 weeks of age. I advise Frontline.

All Nicolee puppies are vet checked between 5 and 6 weeks of age and you will have proof of this in the puppy pack.

The microchip is inserted underneath the skin between the animal’s shoulder blades, just below the base of the neck. This is done using a needle, and is similar to your dog having a routine vaccine jab at the vets. The process should not cause your dog any more pain than a vaccine jab at the vets, and, when done properly, most animals don’t notice it’s happening, especially when distracted with a piece of food! The microchip itself takes less than 2 seconds to insert. You will then be asked to fill out the registration form, which will take a further few minutes. The microchip emits a radio wave that is detected by a hand held scanner (animal wardens, rescue centres, pounds, police, micro chippers and vets are all equipped with these scanners ). Should your dog go missing and get picked up by, or be taken to one of the above mentioned authorities, it will be scanned and the microchip detected. The number on the microchip relates to your personal details which are held on a secure database e.g. Petlog® or Identichip® (The database will vary depending on the microchip manufacturer). The person detecting the chip will call the database to get your details and be able to inform you that your dog has been found. A microchip is often compared to the size of a grain of rice. The microchip is approximately 11mm in length. When your dog is micro chipped, you should be offered a collar tag, there may be an extra charge for this depending on the micro chipper and/or manufacturer. The writing on the tag usually that states that your pet is identified with a microchip, and often has the microchip database phone number. Please note – it is a legal requirement to have a tag on your dog with your name and address; your phone number is also a very good idea and the easiest way for a finder to contact you. The microchip should last the life time of your pet. It is very rare for a microchip to stop working. For peace of mind ask your vet or local micro chipper to check your pets chip by scanning it every 6 months or so.

As I am a qualified Microchipper, all Nicolee puppies will be Microchipped before leaving.

Our puppies can be visited from 4 weeks of age as we are conscious not to introduce any foreign object that could affect them at this vunerable age.
If you want to see the puppies earlier please contact us and we can forward pictures onto you. We will update our website with pictures of the puppies as they grow up.

We recommend The Kennel Club endorsed ‘Agria Pet’ Insurance for its comprehensive cover and efficiency.

We have had horror stories relayed to us by other dog owners as a result of insuring a pet with companies that appear more affordable.

YES! Without question!

We advise you to do as much interaction with people,children and other dogs as possible. The puppies have been bought up around my family with two young children playing with them on a daily basis. They are introduced to household noises and taken out in the car for trips to get them used to traveling. We have cats, chickens ,geese and lots of horses here so they get used to a variety of animals before they go to their new home. Please check your area for dog training classes. Your vet may advise you of local classes.

Hip dysplasia is a term which includes a number of specific developmental and other abnormalities involving the hip joint.

Hip dysplasia in Dogs

Hip dysplasia (HD) is a term which encompasses a number of specific developmental and other abnormalities involving the hip joint. Developmental changes come first and being related mainly to growth are known as primary changes. Others come later; these are related to wear and tear from usage and are termed secondary changes. The end result is that one or a pair of joints becomes mechanically unsound and therefore does not function properly An unsound joint is usually a painful one and lameness will result. In extreme cases the dog may find movement very difficult and much suffering will be involved.

It was in the light of these findings that the British Veterinary Association (BVA) and the Kennel Club (KC) developed a scheme some 30 years ago to assess the degree of hip malformation of dogs through radiography. Over this time almost 100,000 radiographs (X-rays) have been examined to provide a standardised pinion on HD status, principally for the use of breeders. Currently 97 breeds are surveyed by the scheme in the UK.

DEVELOPMENTAL DEMANDS
It is argued that dogs are not born with hips affected by dysplasia (unlike humans suffering from the disease). Hip modelling, otherwise termed development, can worsen with the passing of time, most particularly during the rapid growth phase between 14 and 26 weeks of age. Unwelcome
changes in anatomic relationships within the joint start in early puppyhood with first usage and continue through into young adulthood. Wear and tear from exercise of the distorted joint is followed by varying amounts of inflammation and degeneration resulting in remodeling change.

THE BVA/KC HD SCHEME
All radiographs submitted to the BVA/KC Hip Dysplasia Scheme are assessed by means of scoring. The hip score is the sum of the points awarded for each of nine radiographic features of both hip joints. The lower the score the less the degree of hip dysplasia present. The minimum (best) score for each hip is zero and the maximum (worst) is 53, giving a range for the total of 0 to 106 The average score of the breed, or the ‘breed mean score’, is calculated from all the scores recorded for a given breed and is shown alongside its range thereby giving a representation of the overall hip status of the breed. All breeders wishing to try to control HD should breed only from animals with hip scores well below the breed mean score.

For the hip scoring scheme to be meaningful and successful in the attempt to control this serious disease it is important that all radiographs taken under the scheme are submitted for scoring, whatever the apparent state of the hips, in order that the information gathered is as relevant as possible. It is only by this means that proper conclusions may be drawn by the scheme’s statisticians, geneticists and veterinary advisers.

It is not hard to understand why things happen so quickly and how critical a whole series of factors in the dog’s life are, when realising some animals treble their size and weight during a three- month period of adolescence. Getting all the many nutritional needs in the right quantity, to the right place and at the right time requires a mastery of logistics. However, it has to be realised that this apparent basic requirement overlays the parts played by inheritance and other factors, for example the type of exercise taken and the degree of body weight.

The only way to assess properly the presence or relative absence of HD is by radiography. This is an accurate photographic way of showing the position of the ball of the joint in relation to the socket and the presence and degree of any secondary changes.

CAUSES
If HD was caused by a single factor then it would have been fully under stood and largely overcome by now. It is known that two factors determine whether HD is to occur and, if so, how bad it will be – inheritance and what is termed ‘environment’. The former relates to the genetic code passed to the offspring by both parents and the latter to all the outside influences which alter and mould the growth and functions of the bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons and muscles of the body
In simplistic terms the genetic code is rather like the architect’s building blue prints and, the environment, the builders and their materials. In HD the architect gets things wrong to a greater or lesser extent but the builders have the greater influence on how things look and function in the final analysis.

Elbow dysplasia is a condition involving multiple developmental abnormalities of the elbow-joint. It is a common condition of certain breeds of dogs. Most developmental elbow abnormalities are related to osteochondrosis (OCD), which is a disease of the joint cartilage. Osteochondritis dissecans refers to separation of a flap of cartilage on the joint surface. Other common causes of elbow dysplasia included ununited anconeal process (UAP) and fractured medial coronoid process (FMCP).

Causes

In OCD, the normal change of cartilage to bone in the development of the joint fails or is delayed. The cartilage continues to grow and may split or become necrotic. The cause is uncertain, but possibly includes genetics, trauma, and nutrition (including excessive calcium and decreased Vitamin C intake).

The disease

OCD lesions are found in the elbow at the medial epicondyle of the humerus. Specific conditions related to OCD include fragmentation of the medial coronoid process of the ulna (FMCP) and an ununited anconeal process of the ulna (UAP). All types of OCD of the elbow are most typically found in large breed dogs, with symptoms starting between the ages of 4 to 8 months. Males are affected twice as often as females. The disease often affects both elbows (30 to 70 percent of the time), and symptoms include intermittent lameness, joint swelling, and external rotation and abduction of the paw. Osteoarthritis will develop later in most cases.

UAP is caused by a separation from the ulna of the ossification centre of the anconeal process. FMCP is caused by a failure of the coronoid process to unite with the ulna. OCD of the medial epicondyle of the humerus is caused by disturbed endochondral fusion of the epiphysis of the medial epicondyle with the distal end of the humerus, which may in turn be caused by avulsion of the epiphysis.
DIAGNOSIS

Diagnosis is through x-rays.

Haemophilia ‘A’ is a bleeding disorder. Clinically, it is exactly the same in the GSD as it is in humans. The disease has been known to man as an inheritable problem since the 2nd century!

This contains an important message – it is normally only MALES that are afflicted. Whilst it is possible for a female to have the disorder it is EXTREMELY rare. The mode of inheritance is shown below… because the disease is sex-linked then it is only necessary to look at the sex-chromosomes X and Y to understand how it is passed on. It is, in fact, a problem with the ‘female’ X chromosome and in the diagram below, the affected or abnormal gene is represented by Xh. The diagram shows all the possible combinations from the first generation of breeding using a male haemophiliac…

“Starting with an affected Male – by inheritance or mutation”

So for a female to be affected, the disease would require TWO abnormal X chromosomes to come together – as mentioned before not a likely event.

However, history has taught the dangers of not testing males before using them at stud to be certain that they do not have this disorder. The problem is that by the time we find out about them from the offspring they produce (and from the diagram above you can see that we will not learn of this until the second generation!), the number of affected males and carrier females can be very large. Consequently, it is easy for the disease to spread quickly with the resulting nightmare of people who have bought puppies for pets having to live with a continual risk of there dog possibly bleeding to death if they have even a minor injury. Some simply bleed to death from nothing more than a bump or knock.

Therefore, in August 1991 in the U.K. , the GSD Breed Council of Great Britain set up it’s own Haemophilia ‘A’ screening programme. It was largely due to the furore at that time surrounding a male GSD which had been imported from Germany and was a popular stud. Unfortunately he had sired around 80 litters of puppies before it was discovered that he was a Haemophiliac! We never want to see anything like this again. The scheme was designed and set up by John Allinson – a GSD breeder – who also just happens to have spent over 20 years in a career within analytical pathology. All tests are fully controlled and logged on to a database which is registered with the Data protection Registrar.

Since that time, it has become the norm amongst reputable GSD breeders to ensure any male they use at stud has been tested and proven clear of the disease. The test is performed on a small blood sample collected by your vet.

Pedigree positions (shaded areas) where known Haemophiliacs can pass the disease on to the dog to which the pedigree belongs.

Parents Grandparents GG Parents GGG Parents GGGG Parents

Males – only the BOTTOM half of this pedigree applies
Females – ALL the pedigree applies

Once a test is performed and is normal, it lasts for life! Breeders can also pass on proof of testing to new puppy owners.

Since the scheme started, previously unknown haemophiliacs and carrier females have been identified in the U.K.

The cost of medical procedures change over time, so please confirm charges with your vet.

Identification

The DNA profile is the ultimate in individual identification and offers a ‘tamper-proof’ means of identity. The profile need only be produced once and the DNA sample used to produce it can be stored as a permanent DNA record throughout the dog’s life. Identification could be essential in a number of instances. For example, the availability of a profile could be used to identify an animal that may have been lost or stolen, and subsequently recovered. The profile could also be used to check the authenticity of a DNA sample being used to screen for the presence of disease-causing genes. Many such tests are being developed and it would be invaluable to be able to verify that the correct dog’s DNA is being tested for the presence of the deleterious gene. Repeating the DNA profile on the same sample of DNA being used to carry out the gene test would be straightforward and prove conclusively that the correct animal is being tested.

Benefits of DNA Testing

DNA profiling provides an owner with their dog’s unique DNA identity.

DNA profiling establishes an accurate and reliable permanent record of any identity for any dog.

It confirms that pedigrees are correct and guarantees puppy buyers that pedigrees are accurate.

It can be used in cases of multiple sires and can determine and verify the sire in any litter.

It can verify parentage when using a stud service thus eliminating the doubt, which surrounds unobserved stud services.

It can verify and guarantee semen to be used for artificial insemination.

It can put to rest any issues of breeding disputes over parentage.

Hereditary disease tests allow for accurate diagnosis of disease status of your dog (clear, carrier or affected).

The Proof of the Puppy is in its Profile

A more detailed explanation of the process of DNA profiling – by Dr Jeff Sampson.

Buried within the DNA of each and every individual is a special DNA signature that can be used to uniquely identify that individual. DNA profiling is the name given to the technique that has been developed to reveal this DNA signature. Initially, DNA-based approaches to identifying individuals were pioneered in humans, but the same technology has easily been transposed to the dog. Nowadays, special sequences found in DNA called micro satellites are used to build up this DNA signature. Micro satellites have become the system of choice for DNA profiling and genetic testing in humans. The US Armed Forces, FBI, Scotland Yard, The Royal Canadian Mounted Police and multiple forensic laboratories use micro satellites for their forensic, paternity and individual identification tests. The reasons that have made them come to the fore in humans are the very reasons that currently make them the system of choice for dogs.

The technique essentially involves preparing a DNA sample from an individual dog. For this we need to obtain some tissue from the dog in order to prepare the DNA. The ideal source of material would be a blood sample which will permit us to isolate DNA from the white cells; this however requires a vet to take the sample of blood before passing it onto the laboratory for testing. Less invasive techniques which don’t require veterinary intervention have therefore been sought to make the procedure more convenient. One alternative source of tissue are the cells that can be easily removed from the inside of a dog’s cheek, called buccal cells.

In this case all that is required is to gently rub a small plastic brush against the inside of the cheek to remove the buccal cells. The brush, containing the cells can then be returned to the laboratory for analysis. DNA can be made from both tissue sources, although considerably less DNA is provided by the buccal cells because they are considerably fewer in number.

What can DNA profiling offer? Well, as I have explained, the DNA signature that is revealed can uniquely identify an individual dog. However, the profile is not just a means of identification because it also carries within it information on the parents of the dog. This is because a puppy inherits half of its DNA from its mother and the remaining half from its father. This essentially means that half of the components that make up the profile are maternal in origin and the other half paternal. So it is in these two areas that profiling has impact: individual identification and parentage verification.

If your puppy is over 4 months old are worried that your German Shepherd puppies ears have not come up then please contact me. I can help.
Do not panic if they have come up and gone back down again they will do this over the first 7-9 months.

Occasionally a German Shepherd puppy will need some help in getting his/her ears to stand up. AND if other dogs at home are not biting the pups ears ….99.9 % of the time the ears will go up

We always advise people not to let their puppy play unsupervised with other dogs and puppies while the ears are going up – as when dogs play they will bite heads, necks, and ears! That could damage the ears causing them not to go up.

We advise people to give their puppy something to chew on to encourage the ears to come up. We recommend Rawhide bones,pigs ears and fresh raw beef bones.

Chocolate

Symptoms: Vomiting, diarrhoea, increased heart rate, rapid breathing, muscle tremors, seizures and coma.

It often surprises pet owners to discover that the drugs in chocolate is poisonous in sufficient dosages, particularly to dogs. Specifically it is the drugs Theo bromine and caffeine (of the drug class methylxanthines), that are toxic to pets. Only a moderate amount needs to be eaten by a dog, in order to be poisonous (approx. ½oz. of baking chocolate per pound of body weight and less in some animals).

It is also believed that dark or plain chocolate is more toxic than the milk or cooking chocolate variety.

Grapes Grapes and all grape products are being considered poisonous to dogs by some international Animal Authorities
Nutmeg Symptoms: Hallucinogen.
Onions

Symptoms: Cause anaemia

Onions should not be fed to dogs in any form.

Voltarin

Symptoms: This drug is used in rheumatoid arthritis. It is a slow release drug that acts over 3/4 days, causing massive internal bleeding in dogs. An anti-toxin and stomach flush must be used immediately by a vet in order to prevent permanent damage to internal organs.

Can be Fatal

Plants

Extremely
Toxic
Moderately
Toxic
Minimally
Toxic

NAME

TOXIC
PARTS

SYMPTOMS


Aconite
All  Nausea and vomiting

Aloe Vera
. Diarrhoea
Alsike
Clover

trifolium hybridum

whole plant
generally affects horse, cattle and sheep

 

causes
female organs to swell
starts milk production without pregnancy, cause temporary  or permanent
infertility

Amaryllis 
Bulbs Upset Stomach, Hyperactivity Lethargy Coma, Shock 

Angels’ trumpets
Toxic if eaten  nausea and vomiting

Apple
seeds &
Apple pips
seeds Varied Toxic Effects. The plant is
cyanogenic

Apple leaf croton


Whole
plant very toxic



Could
be fatal – due to ricin – hemorrhages of the heart, degradation of
the kidneys and liver and intense inflammation and erosion of intestinal
membranes 

Apricot
Kernel
Kernels contain cyanide.  Children have died from eating too many kernels!

Arborvitae
Harmful if eaten in quantity May cause a skin allergy

Asparagus fern
. Contains a wide variety of poisons resulting in a
bewildering range of symptoms.

Autumn crocus
bulbs and entire plant vomiting, nervous
excitement. Plant can cause dermatitis

Avocado 
fruit and
pith
diarrhoea,
vomiting, laboured breathing,

Azalea
entire
plant
nausea, vomiting,
depression, difficulty breathing and coma

Barilla
leaves and stems
plant contains soluble oxalates
Benweed

Senecio jacobaea
See Ragwort See Ragwort

Bird of paradise

seeds

gastrointestinal tract affected by the plant toxins

Bittersweet
Entire plant The plant is reputed to be toxic
Black
Locust

Robinia
pseudoacacia
All parts of the tree, except the flowers – the
bark is considered the most toxic

staggering,
paralysis, – mainly affecting horses, cattle sheep and poultry
Black
Walnut
entire 
Harmful if eaten in quantity.
Can cause temporary paralysis
Bleeding
Heart

dicentra spectabilis
foliage,
roots, 
Poisonous
in large amounts, contains convulsant including isoquinoline. Plant also
causes dermatitis

Blue bell

.

Harmful if eaten in quantity

Boxwood
entire
plant
Upset Stomach, Heart
Failure, Excitability or Lethargy. Plant also causes dermatitis

Branching ivy

berries and leaves gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins. Plant also causes dermatitis

British
Manrake

bryonia
dioica

See
White
Bryony

See
White
Bryony

Buckeyes


Aesculus hippocastanum
Nuts, immature growths Gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins

Buckthorn

.

Harmful if eaten in quantity

Burning Bush

Toxic if eaten
Nausea and vomiting. May cause a skin allergy.

Buttercup
Ranunculus
spp.
entire
plant
juice may severely injure
digestive system. Plant also causes dermatitis

Caladium
. Upset Stomach, Oral
Irritation, Asphyxiation, Tremors, Seizures, Loss of Balance

Calico Bush
Toxic if eaten Nausea and vomiting. May cause a skin allergy.

Calla lily

Leaves Upset Stomach, Oral
Irritation, Asphyxiation, Tremors, Seizures, Loss of Balance


Cannabis

cannabis sativa
the
whole plant – in all forms – it
has a bitter taste and so generally
avoided by animals
muscular
weakness,
salivation, vomiting, drowsiness – not generally fatal

Castor bean
Ricinus communis L.

Entire
Plant
Highly
toxic seeds contain toxalbumins.
A single Rosary Pea or one to two Castor Bean seeds can cause death. Plant also causes dermatitis

Charming dieffenbachia
mainly
from the sap or the water that cutting were in
Repeated
vomiting and diarrhoea – recover after three days-

Cherry 
Kernels plant is
cyanogenic

Cherry Laurel

.

Harmful if eaten in quantity
Chinese
Lantern


Solanum spp
See
Nightshade
See
Nightshade
Christmas
Cherry


Solanum spp
See
Nightshade
See
Nightshade

Christmas rose
entire plant Upset Stomach, Diarrhoea,
Seizures, Disorientation. Cardiovascular system affected by the cardiac glycosides helleborin and helleborein. Plant also causes dermatitis

Chrysanthemum
Leaves and stems May cause a
rash after contact. May cause dermatitis

Clematis

Entire plant gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by plant toxins. Plant also causes dermatitis
Cocklebur
Xanthium strumarium 

.

.

Colombine

.

Harmful if eaten in quantity

Common
Nettle

urtica dioica
See
Stinging Nettle
See
Stinging nettle

Common
St. Johns Wort


hypericum perforatum
See
St. Johns Wort
See
St Johns Wort
Common
Stonecrop

sedum acre
the
whole plant
if
eaten in large quantities – salivation, muscle tremors, rapid
respiration and coma

Cordatum

.

.

Corn cockle

.
 Harmful if eaten in quantity

Cuckoo pint
. Nausea and vomiting. May cause a skin allergy.

Cutleaf philodendron
The whole plant causes diarrhoea upon ingestion. Also causes dermatitis when touched. Causes burning sensation in mouth when eaten

Cyclamen
Flowers

 

induced vomiting – skin reaction

Daffodil
1
Narcissus spp.

bulbs nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea caused by the alkaloid toxins. Plant also causes dermatitis

Daphne
berries and seeds, but also entire plant gastrointestinal tract and kidneys affected by coumarin glycosides. Plant also causes dermatitis
Dwarf
Bay
See
Mezereon
See
Mezereon

Deadly Nightshade



Solanum spp
See
Nightshade
See
Nightshade

Delphinium
Delphinium spp.

.

Harmful if eaten in quantity

Dendrathema
. May cause a skin
allergy

Devils
figs
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity

Devil’s Ivy
(Philodendron)
The whole plant causes diarrhoea upon ingestion. Also causes dermatitis when touched. Causes burning sensation in mouth when eat.  Upset Stomach, Mouth
Irritation, Tremors, Seizures, Loss of Balance, asphyxiation, death

Dracaena palm
.
.

Dumb cane

dieffenbachia
. Upset Stomach, Oral
Irritation, Asphyxiation, Tremors, Seizures, Loss of Balance, Death
Dutchman
Breechs
Dicentra spp
See
Bleeding Heart
See
Bleeding Heart

Dwarf Morning glory
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity

Easter lily 

.

(especially poisonous to cats)

Echium
. May cause a skin allergy

Elderberry
Sambucus canadensis
L. 
shoots,
bark, and leaves. Entire plant.
nausea and vomiting. Plant is
cyanogenic and may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

Elephant ears

all parts intense burning, irritation
and swelling of the mouth and throat. Death can occur is tongue swells
enough to block air passage 

English ivy
Hedera helix L.

berries and leaves gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins. Plant also causes dermatitis
Ergot
Claviceps
purpurea
. Causes
abortions in humans and sheep – suggestions it would do the same in
dogs.

European spindle
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity

Exotica perfection
dieffenbachia
mainly
from the sap or the water that cutting were in
Repeated
vomiting and diarrhoea – recover after three days

False
Acacia
Robinia
pseudoacacia
See
Black Locust
See
Black Locust

False Hellebore

.
Nausea and vomiting.
Fescue
Festuca
arundinaceae
.
.

Flannel flower

.

Harmful if eaten in quantity

Flax
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity

Foxglove
Digitalis purpurea  L.
Entire plant cardiovascular system affected by the glycosides digitalin and digitoxin. Gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins

Fruit salad plant
(philodendron)
The whole plant causes diarrhoea upon ingestion. Also causes dermatitis when touched. Causes burning sensation in mouth when eaten

Gaultheria
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity

Geranium

.
Mild
dermatitis

German ivy
berries and leaves gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins. Plant also causes dermatitis

German primula
. Nausea and vomiting. May cause a skin allergy.

Giant dumb cane
mainly
from the sap or the water that cutting were in

Repeated
vomiting and diarrhoea – recover after three days-

Glacier ivy
berries and leaves gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins. Plant also causes dermatitis

Glory Lily
. causing nausea and vomiting

Gold dieffenbachia


mainly
from the sap or the water that cutting were in

Repeated
vomiting and diarrhoea – recover after three days

Golden chain tree
entire plant especially bean-like capsules in which seeds are suspended excitement, staggering,
convulsions and coma. Nervous system affected by the alkaloid cytisine

Granny’s bonnets
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity
Greater
Burdock

Arctium lappa
burs
Symptoms
burs to coats of dogs cause skin irritation – dogs remove burrs by
licking – hooked scales penetrate the mucous membrane of mouth and
tongue – ulceration, oral discomfort, salivation

Hahn’s self-branching
English ivy
berries and leaves gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins. Plant also causes dermatitis

Heartleaf philodendron
The whole plant causes diarrhoea upon ingestion. Also causes dermatitis when touched. Causes burning sensation in mouth when eaten
Hemp
Cannabis sativa L.
See
Cannabis
See
Cannabis

Henbane
Toxic if eaten Nausea and vomiting.

Holly
Berries Upset Stomach, Tremors,
Seizures, Loss of Balance

Honeysuckle

lonicera periclymenum
plants
and berries
vomiting,
diarrhoea and lethargy
Horse
tail
Equisetaceace

the complete weed
7
mainly affects horses and to a lesser
cattle
Horse chestnut
Aesculus hippocastanum

Harmful if eaten in quantity

Horse
head philodendron
The whole plant causes diarrhoea upon ingestion. Also causes dermatitis when touched. Causes burning sensation in mouth when eaten

Hurricane plant
bulb Varied Toxic Effects

Hyacinth
Hyacinth orientalis

bulb
gastrointestinal tract affected by alkaloid toxins, Plant also causes dermatitis 

Indian rubber plant
. .

Iris
tubers severe digestive upset. gastrointestinal tract affected by the glycoside
iridin. plant also causes dermatitis
Ivy

araliaceae
whole plant vomiting, diarrhoea,
excitement, muscular spasms, paralysis
Jack in the Pulpit
Arisaema spp.
 entire
plant
contains small crystals of
calcium oxalate, causes burning to the mouth, can cause hallucinations

Japanese show lily 
. especially poisonous to cats

Japanese Spindle
Harmful if eaten in quantity
8 Jessamine berries and sap Digestive disturbance. gastrointestinal tract affected by solanine
glycoalkaloids. The nervous system affected by atropine-like toxins 

Jerusalem cherry


Solanum pseudocapsicum

immature growths. gastrointestinal tract affected by solanine
glycoalkaloids. may contain toxic levels of nitrates. plant may also cause dermatitis
Jimson Weed
Datura stramonium L.
entire
plant
abnormal thirst, distorted
sight, delirium, incoherence, coma caused by the alkaloids atropine, scopolamine and
hyoscyamine. May contain toxic levels of nitrates.

Johnsongrass
. .

Kingcup
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity

Lacy tree philodendron
The whole plant causes diarrhoea upon ingestion. Also causes dermatitis when touched. Causes burning sensation in mouth when eaten

Larkspur
young
plants and seeds
digestive upset,
nervousness, depression. Cardiovascular system affected by alkaloids including delphinine. Plant also causes dermatitis

Latana
Lantana camara L.
green
berries (immature)
affects
lungs, heart, kidneys and nervous system, affected by lantodene, an atropine-like toxin. Plant is also hepatogenic

Laurel
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity

Lenton rose
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity

Leopard lily
.  Nausea and vomiting. May cause a skin allergy.

Leyland cypress
. May cause a skin allergy

Lily of the valley
Convallaria majalis
entire plant

  irregular
heart beat and pulse accompanied by digestive upset and mental confusion caused by the glycosides convallarin and convallamarin

Lobelia tupa
. May cause a skin allergy

Locust
bark,
sprouts, foliage
nausea and weakness
Lupine
Lupinus spp
. .

Mallow
.  Harmful if eaten in quantity

Marsh Marigold
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity

Marble queen

. .

Marijuana
leaves and flower bracts plant contains the hallucinogens tetrahydro-cannabinols

May apple
Podophyllum peltatum L.
apple,
roots, foliage
severe diarrhoea. Contains 16
active toxic agents, mainly in the roots. Nervous system affected by plant toxins, also causes hematological abnormalities. Powdered root may cause conjunctivitis and keratitis 

Meadow rue
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity

Meadow Saffron
.  nausea and vomiting
Mexican breadfruit   (split leaf philodendron) .

Mezereon

.

could
prove fatal – lethargy dizziness vomiting diarrhoea
Milkweed
Asclepias syriaca L.
. May cause a skin allergy

Mistletoe
berries, leaves and stems. gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins. Plant may also cause dermatitis.
If ingested a few berries can be fatal to a puppy

Monkshood
entire plant especially fleshy
roots
digestive upset and
nervous excitement. cardiovascular system affected by alkaloid toxins

Moonseed
Berries
resembles wild grapes, contains a single seed
contains
convulsant

Morning glory
,
Upset Stomach, Hallucinations

Moroccan broom
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity

Mountain laurel
. Harmful if eaten in quantity

Naked
Lady Lilly
See
Amaryllis
See
Amaryllis

Narissus
Narcissus spp.
bulbs  nausea, vomiting,
diarrhoea caused by the alkaloid toxins. Plant also causes dermatitis

Needlepoint ivy

berries and leaves gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins. Plant also causes dermatitis

Nightshade



Solanum spp.

entire
plant
 intense digestive
disturbances

Oak tree
Foliage
and Acorns
Also the bark of the tree.
Poisoning by oak is usually seasonal, being most common in spring when the
young buds or leaves are eaten and the autumn when the acorns are eaten. Oakleaves and acorns contain tannic acid which is poisonous to horses and
though eating a small number of leaves or acorns is almost certainly
harmless, they can also be addictive, and once a horse has acquired a taste
for them they can actively search them out. Also some animals seem to be
more susceptible to oak poisoning than others with individual animals having
different levels of tolerance.
Oak poisoning causes gastroenteritis and kidney damage.
Symptoms include: lack of appetite, staring coat, constipation followed by
diarrhoea which may be bloodstained, abdominal pain
depression, blood in urine
There is no antidote. The horse is treated with drugs to reduce the pain and
control the diarrhoea, antibiotics may be prescribed.

Oleander
Nerium oleander L.

leaves and
branches. Entire plant and the water used for cut plants.
affects the heart, produces
severe digestive upset. Extremely poisonous, can cause death. cardiovascular system affected by the glycosides
oleandrin, oleandroside and nerioside. Plant may also cause dermatitis

Onion

Onions should not be fed to dogs in any form. Cause
anemia. Sometimes Urine becomes red – enlarged kidneys degeneration
of liver

Oriental lily 

. (especially poisonous to cats)
Ornamental Pepper

Solanum spp
See
Nightshade
See
Nightshade


Paspalum
Sticky material from seeds  dermatitis

Pasque flower

.

Harmful if eaten in quantity

Peace lily

entire plant
gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins. Plant also causes dermatitis

Peach 

Both the stone and leaf contain cyanide Plant is
cyanogenic

Pencil cactus

.
similar
to LSD – hallucinogenic

Peruvian lily
. May cause a skin allergy

Pineapple broom
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity.
Poison Hemlock
Conium maculatum L.
entire
plant
(resembles a wild carrot)
nervous system affected by alkaloids including coniine, conidrine and coniceine. May contain toxic levels of nitrates. Plant also causes dermatitis

Poinsettia 

leaves stems and sap
Diarrhoea,
abdominal cramps, delirium. Sap can cause irritation, and if rubbed in
eyes – BLINDNESS. gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxin euphorbin, may contain toxic levels of nitrates. Plant also causes dermatitis

Poison ivy

Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze

Leaves, bark and fruit contain a
variety of poisons.

may cause dermatitis 

Poison oak

Leaves, bark and fruit contain a
variety of poisons.
may cause dermatitis

Poison sumac
4 . Can cause severe blistering dermatitis if they come into contact with skin.

Poisonous Primula
Toxic if eaten Nausea and vomiting. May cause a skin allergy

Pokeroot
Toxic if eaten,  causing vomiting and nausea

Pokeweed
Toxic if eaten. Nausea and vomiting

Poppy

.

Harmful if eaten in quantity

Pothos

The whole plant causes diarrhoea upon ingestion. Also causes dermatitis when touched. Causes burning sensation in mouth when eaten

Precatory bean

seeds
gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins 

Primrose (primula)

leaves Upset
Stomach and may cause dermatitis

Ragwort

Senecio jacobaea


Entire
plant
A common yellow flowered weed found in rough pasture and in some lawns. It is highly toxic to a wide variety of animals, especially horses and cattle, usually digested when dead as it becomes more palatable. However a number of dogs die  by eating a small amount whilst grazing on long grass. If you ensure that your lawns etc are kept free of the weed, and keep a check on dog grazing, the plant is
obvious so it can be done easily..

 

Causes kidney failure and liver damage and is irreversible. Minute doses fatal, often wrongly diagnosed. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids cause hepatic
veno-occlusive disease (Budd-Chiari syndrome) in humans

Note: In UK this plant is notifiable to
MAFF due to its toxicity to livestock. If you have it on your land, please dig it up and dispose of it by burning. Do not leave it lying around as its toxicity increases. It must be dug up as the seeds can stay in the ground for a number of years. 

Red
Clover

trifolium pratense)
See
Alsike Clover
See
Alsike clover
Infertile problem with cattle

Red-ink plant
. nausea and vomiting

Red
Maple
. .
Rhododendron
Rhododendron spp.
entire
plant
nausea, vomiting,
depression, difficulty breathing and coma
Rhubarb
Rheum
Rhabarbarum
leaves  large amounts of raw or
cooked leaves can cause convulsions, coma and in extreme cases, death

Rosary
Pea
Ricinus communis L.
See
Castor Bean
See
Caster Bean

Rosebay
. nausea and vomiting

Rose periwinkle
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity

Rue
5 . nausea and vomiting. May cause a skin allergy

Saddle leaf philodendron
The whole plant causes diarrhoea upon ingestion. Also causes dermatitis when touched. Causes burning sensation in mouth when eaten

Satin pothos
The whole plant causes diarrhoea upon ingestion. Also causes dermatitis when touched. Causes burning sensation in mouth when eaten

Savin
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity

Schefflera
. nausea and vomiting. May cause a skin allergy

Senecio
. .

Silkweed
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity

Silver pothos
The whole plant causes diarrhoea upon ingestion. Also causes dermatitis when touched. Causes burning sensation in mouth when eaten

Solomon
seal
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity
0 Spotted dumb cane mainly
from the sap or the water that cutting were in


Repeated
vomiting and diarrhoea – recover after three days
Spurge
Flax
See
Mezereon
See
Mezereon
Spurge
Olive
See
Mezereon
See
Mezereon

Spurge Laurel
. nausea and vomiting. May cause a skin allergy

Squill
.  Harmful if eaten in quantity
Staggerweed

Senecio jacobaea
See
Ragwort
See
Ragwort

Star of Bethlehem
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity

Starflower
.
Harmful if eaten in quantity

Stinging
nettle
urtica dioica
stinging
hairs release active irritant substances into skin
in
very extreme
cases – trembling, vomiting, difficulty in breathing and weakness

St
James Wort

Senecio jacobaea
See
Ragwort
See
Ragwort

St
Johns Wort

hypericum perforatum
Complete
plant
Symptom lesions develop on
un- pigmented areas of skin exposed to sunlight – photosensitization

Subterranean
Clover


trifolium subterranium
See
Alsike Clover
See
Alsike Clover

Sweetheart ivy
berries and leaves gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins. Plant also causes dermatitis

Swiss cheese plant

mainly
from the sap or the water that cutting were in


Repeated vomiting and diarrhoea – recover after three days- but not so severe

Tansy

Senecio jacobaea
See
Ragwort
See
Ragwort

Taro vine
The whole plant causes diarrhoea upon ingestion. Also causes dermatitis when touched. Causes burning sensation in mouth irritated by plant raphides
Thorn
Apple
See
Jimson weed
See
Jimson weed

Tiger lily 

.

(especially poisonous to cats)

Tomato plant 
green fruit, stem, and leaves .

Tree philodendron
The whole plant causes diarrhoea upon ingestion. Also causes dermatitis when touched. Causes burning sensation in mouth when eaten

Tropic snow dieffenbachia
mainly
from the sap or the water that cutting were in


Repeated vomiting and diarrhoea – recover after three days-

Tulip
Tulipa spp

.
May cause a skin allergy

Variegated philodendron
The whole plant causes diarrhoea upon ingestion. Also causes dermatitis when touched. Causes burning sensation in mouth when eaten

Variegated rubber plant
4 . .

Varnish tree
. Poisonous. Can cause severe blistering dermatitis if they come into contact with skin.
Water Hemlock
Cicuta maculata
entire
plant especially the roots
4 violent painful convulsions,
death caused by the convulsant cicutoxin
White
Bryony
bryonia dioica
mainly
the roots – worse toxic when dried
possible increase in body temp rapid respiratory and heart rates
White
Clover

trifolium repens
See
Alsike Clover
See
Alsike Clover
can suffer cyanide poisoning

Wild Cherry tree
twigs and
foliage
gasping, excitement,
prostration
Contains a compound that releases cyanide when eaten
Wild
Pepper
See
Mezereon
See
Mezereon

Wisteria
seeds,
pods and entire plant
digestive upset caused by alkaloid toxins. Nausea, repeated vomiting, stomach pains, severe diarrhoea, dehydration and collapse

Wolfs bane
nausea and vomiting

Woody Nightshade
nausea and vomiting

Yew

berries,
foliage
digestive disturbance. Dizziness, dry mouth and mydriasis develop within one hour, followed by
abdominal cramping, salivation and vomiting. Foliage
is more fatal than berries, death can be sudden without warning or
symptoms

Note: The author assumes no liability for the content. Contact your veterinarian immediately if you think your pet has ingested any of the following plants. This does not represent a complete list of all poisonous plants. Also, your pet may have a sensitivity or allergy to a plant that is not on the list, resulting in toxicity.

The Blue color in German Shepherds is the result of a dilution gene. This recessive gene dilutes any Black pigment on the dog including coat colour, nose leather, foot pads, eye rims, and lips. It also affects their eye colour. Most Blue German Shepherds have lighter coloured eyes, including but not limited to, yellow, amber, and varying shades of light brown. When puppies first open their eyes they are coloured blue. This is due to a protective film nature provides. Blue coloured German Shepherd puppies often retain this blue eye colour 8-10 weeks after birth which is much longer than a puppy not affected by this dilution gene. Below is a simplified explanation of the genetic activity which results in a puppy being born expressing the blue pigmentation.
*Note: This same explanation and mode of inheritance outlined below can be used for the Liver coat colour as well as well as the pure White coat colour. The difference between the Liver gene and the Blue gene is that the Liver gene blocks the formation of the black pigment entirely rather that simply diluting it. Further explanation of the differences between these two recessive colour genes is explained further down. The White coat colour is due to a masking gene and is unrelated to affecting black pigmentation as the blue and liver genes do. Further explanation of the White masking gene will be explained further down as well.

Two genes are at work in producing the coat colour of a GSD: a colour gene and a pattern gene. The pattern gene produces either the familiar saddle markings (which we will use here for ease of explanation) and facial mask markings. Usually those markings are Black, and the most familiar pattern for a GSD is probably the Black and Tan Saddle pattern. In a Blue coloured dog, the recessive Blue colour gene dilutes–acts upon–only the Black pigment on the dog. As a result, a Blue dog can be, Blue and Tan, Blue and Red, Blue Sable, Solid Blue etc. To simplify the explanation below I am using the term “Blue” as a general statement to describe a Blue GSD of any pattern, and the term “Black and Tan” to describe a GSD of “normal” of coloration. Further down I will discuss the solid black pattern gene which is often mistaken as a colour gene.

For a puppy to be born expressing the Blue pigmentation in a litter, both parents must carry this Blue dilution recessive gene. When the pups are developing during the gestation period they have a “choice” of colour genes to choose from. Someone had told me to think of it as containers of paint. Let’s say both the dam and the sire are Black and Tan in coloration. Each parent carries a gene for this colour and shows it since this is a dominant gene. Now let’s say that each parent also carries the Blue recessive gene. Since this Blue gene is recessive they will not show the colour Blue but do have the ability to pass this it on to their offspring. So each parent has two “containers” (colour genes) for the pups to choose from. That is a total of four colour genes and each pup will only carry two. One from each parent. So let’s say pup #1 chooses a Black and Tan gene from his dam, and a Black and Tan gene from his sire. This pup will be Black and Tan in coloration and will NOT carry the Blue recessive gene. Now let’s say pup #2 chooses a Blue gene from his dam, and a Black and Tan gene from his sire. This pup will be Black and Tan in coloration but will carry the Blue recessive gene and have the ability to pass it on to his\her offspring should the dog ever be bred. Now pup #3 chooses a Blue gene from each parent. This pup will be a Blue. He is carrying a double recessive, or two Blue genes. So the pup will not only show the Blue colour but pass on the Blue recessive to all of his\her offspring if it is ever bred.

Note that if two Blue adults are bred together they will produce an entire litter of Blues. The reason is there is no choice for the pups. Both parents carry two Blue colour genes. Therefore they will grab a Blue gene from each parent causing them to carry the double recessive and be Blues themselves.

If a Blue adult dog is bred to a dog who is normal coloured and does NOT carry the Blue recessive, then NO pups will be born Blue but ALL pups will carry the Blue gene. The reason is, each pup grabbed ONE gene for colour from each parent. Since one parent was a Blue and carried two Blue genes, the pup has no choice but to pick up the Blue gene from it’s Blue parent. Since the other parent was not a Blue, nor carried the Blue gene at all, he had no choice but to grab a normal coloured or dominant colour gene. So he will show the dominant normal coloured gene but will carry the recessive Blue gene.

The Solid Black Pattern Gene

One more often heard myth is that if you breed two solid Blacks they will surely produce Blue pups. This is not accurate as both parents STILL must carry the Blue recessive gene in order for this to happen. If one or both parents do not carry the Blue recessive gene then NO Blue pups will be born as a result of that breeding. The solid black gene is actually not a colour gene but a pattern gene. There are solid blues and solid livers in the German Shepherd breed. The solid black or self colouring pattern gene does not affect coat pigmentation like blues and livers. Blue dilutes black pigment and Liver blocks the formation of black pigment. The solid black gene causes the dog to wear a solid black pattern. If a solid black dog is bred to a black and tan saddleback who does not carry the solid black gene the pups will be born whatever other pattern genes are floating around in the parents chromosomes, but they will not be solid black. Solid black is another double recessive that follows the same mode of inheritance as outlined above regarding Blue pups. Since solid black is NOT a colour gene but instead a pattern gene then it is possible for a dog to be solid blue or solid liver in colour

*********************

Steel and Powder

We have discovered there are two distinct shades of Blue. What we have dubbed “Powder Blues” and “Steel Blues”. This difference no doubt occurs due to modifiers present which act in conjunction with the dilution gene. As of this date the specific modifier that causes the Powder Blue coat colour has not been identified.

Steel Blue GSD’s usually mature into a dog who is darkly coloured enough to pass for a regular Black and tan when by themselves. However stand these dogs next to a “true” Black and Tan, and the difference becomes obvious. This darker Blue colour represents a much larger portion of the Blue GSD population.

The second variation, Powder Blues, we believe carry modifiers that cause further paling of the coat colours. Powder Blues are much lighter, they are truly Grey and Tan from puppy hood to adulthood. While Steel Blue pups start out Grey (or rather Blue) and darken significantly as adults, Powder Blues retain the lighter colour on their coat, nose leather, lips, etc. It is of course no secret that at the beginning of the development of the German Shepherd breed a Wolf was used to sire a litter and therefore Wolf hybrids became an important factor in setting the type for this breed…………………….